Terminology

*Information regarding gemstone lore and metaphysical properties has been compiled from various sources and is for entertainment purposes only. No claims or promises are expressed or implied.*

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Abalone Shell: (also called ďPauaĒ or ďSea OpalĒ) comes from a large marine mollusk found in the shallow coastal waters around New Zealand.  Itís brilliant iridescence and intense variation of color, that seems to change when viewed from different angles, makes it the most popular and beautiful of all shells.

African Amazonite:  (See Amazonite)

African Jade:  (See Jade)

African Opal: is the industry name given a semi-opaque to opaque stone found in Africa. Although it lacks the translucency and fire of gem quality opal, its earthy colors have earned it a place in the gemstone market. African Opal is generally beige with darker beige or brown mottling and veining. It is also found in various shades of white, yellow, brown and green.

African Turquoise:  while beautiful in its own right, is not true mineral Turquoise. Rather its the industry name given to a natural bluish-green Jasper found in Africa that has a very similar brown to black matrix structure.

Afghan Jade: (See Jade)

Montana Agate Agate: is the name given to a wide selection of Chalcedony, a form of microcrystalline Quartz (SiO2 - Silicon Dioxide) which is a cryptocrystalline. It is a hard stone, usually within the range of 7-9 on the Moh's scale. It is characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although the same mineral compound as Jasper, Agate is usually more translucent while Jasper refers to its opaque relative. It should also be noted that the names for Chalcedony and Agate are often used interchangeably, although the term "Agate" is typically used to describe the banded varieties of Chalcedony.

Agate can be many different colors, and because its banding is so variable, different types of it have been given many different descriptive names. Many types of organic material have been fossilized by Agate, where the organic material has been replaced slowly over a long period of time, so that the original structure of the inclusion has been retained. Fossilized or petrified wood is an attractive form of Agate. Most Agate forms are naturally colored, while others are heated or permanently dyed for decorative effect.

This gemstone is specifically generated in eruptive rocks or in primeval lava zones and are often found in the form of rounded nodules or geodes. When split or sliced, these show their banding to good, sometimes startling effect. In some geodes there is a central cavity, in other the center is hollow. The Native Americans of the western American states referred to these Agate nodules as "thunder eggs".

Agate is the oldest stone in recorded history and has been used in jewelry since Biblical Babylonian times. Agates were used to ward off storms and were prized gems in antiquity. Traditionally, Agates with banded colors were once placed at the head of a sleeper to give rich and varied dreams. Agate is considered a protection stone. It is believed to attract strength and offer protection from bad dreams, stress and the draining of energy.

Agate is the Mystical birthstone for September. It is also the birth stone for the Zodiac sign of Gemini. Agate is the accepted gemstone for the 12th and 14th wedding anniversaries.

 Black Agate: is believed to relieve stress, give protection and increase courage.

Blue Agate: actually refers to a translucent, color enhanced Chalcedony Quartz, while "Blue Lace Agate" is the industry term used to define the natural form of this unique Agate variety.

Blue Lace Agate: is a unique natural form of Agate, pale blue in color, laced with bands or swirls of white to grey to periwinkle.  It is among the most popular and rare varieties of Agate.  It is said to be a calming and uplifting stone that relieves stress by fostering peace and tranquility when gazed upon.

Dragon Vein Agate: (also known as ďCrab AgateĒ or ďFire Crackle AgateĒ) is created by heating agate until fractures appear, then enhancing the contrast of the cracks by filling with a permanent surface additive.

Eagle Eye Agate: has white-green to yellow-grey splotches and swirls. It is said to enhance creativity and strengthen intelligence.

Fancy Agate: is the general term used to describe a translucent, multi-colored and richly patterned variety of Agate. While almost identical in mineral composition to Fancy Jasper, the term "Agate" is used to describe the translucent variety of this stone while "Jasper" refers to its more opaque relative.

 Golden Leaf Agate: (also called "Golden Leaf Jasper") is a deep brown microcrystalline stone with mid to dark tan or gold patterns pressed through it. Although the term "Agate" usually refers to a translucent, banded form of Chalcedony, this stone is primarily an opaque brown with a gold color surfacing from deep inside. Thus, the alternate reference to "Jasper". While all Agates are considered protection stones, Gold Leaf Agate in particular is said to help lift depression and increase friendliness and happiness.

Green Agate  Green Agate: is the of the many color varieties of Chalcedony Quartz. While the color green can occur naturally in banded Agates, the majority of the solid colored beads sold on the jewelry market are usually color enhanced. According to Feng Shui, green is a benevolent and humanistic color. Like all color, it affects us even when we don't know it. In this stone, the spiritual power of green is said to combine with the natural benefits attributed to Agate. It is said that Green Agate corresponds to someone who is compassionate, generous, has good fortune and a keen sense of justice. It is also claimed to encourage those traits in others while worn.

Montana Agate Montana Agate: is best known for its warm, deep browns and oranges. Translucent to transparent in appearance, Montana Agate derives its name from the Yellowstone River and its tributaries where it is found among the gravel deposits of the Pleistocene Age. Montana Agate is said to help balance emotions, discern the truth, accept circumstances and is useful as a powerful emotional healer. Agate is the mystical birthstone for the month of September and the birth stone for the zodiac sign of Gemini.

Moss Agate: is best known for its mottled moss or leaf-like inclusions within a translucent to clear background. While sharing the same mineral composition as Agate, it is found in fissures or as pebbles rather than in a layered or geode form like most Agates. Moss Agate is often referred to as the "Gardener's Stone" and is said to be helpful to farmers in ensuring a good crop by way of encouraging rain, abundance, the fertility of plants, the protection of the earth, and helping one to better communicate with animals and plants. It is has also been credited for being beneficial in regards to prosperity, success, congeniality, compatibility, healing, restoration, creativity, confidence and strength. Some believe Moss Agate to also be helpful when fostering new friendships or seeking a compatible lover.

Natural Agate  Natural Agate: is the general term used to describe an Agate in its natural form that is brown to reddish brown, orange, tan, grey, white or any combination of these colors. Natural Agate is said to foster love, create an appreciation of nature, provide abundance, and soothe emotions.

Pink Agate  Pink Agate: is partially translucent with opaque pink and cream flecks, swirls or banding. It is said to be a grounding stone that brings balance emotionally, physically and intellectually; harmonizing the Yin and Yang. Pink Agate is also credited for enhancing mental function and improving concentration, perception and analytical abilities as well as helping one to overcome negativity and bitterness of the heart. In addition, Pink Agate is associated with parental love and is said to be beneficial in strengthening the bond between parent and child.

Red Agate  Red Agate: in its natural form is usually banded, but the term is also generally used to describe any form of Agate or translucent variety of Chalcedony Quartz that has been color enhanced by heat treatments or dyes.  Red is the color that symbolizes happiness and wealth. While all Agates are considered protective stones, Red Agate in particular is said to guard the property of its owner against theft.   It is also claimed to be beneficial in strengthening the kidneys, relieving colic and healing kidney infections.

  Sardonyx Agate: [See Sardonyx]

 Tree Agate: is distinguished by its green mottling and veining against an opaque white to grey background. While all Agates are considered protective stones, Tree Agate in particular is said to assist with introspection and relieves tension. Like its close relative, Moss Agate, Tree Agate is also believed to be beneficial to gardeners in bringing about plentiful crops.

White Agate  White Agate: (sometimes referred to as "Snow Quartz" or "Snow Jade") is a translucent to opaque variety of Chalcedony Quartz with little or no banding. White is the color that symbolizes purity and therefore is associated with spiritual inspiration and overcoming negative emotions. It is claimed to attract good fortune by eliminating bad luck. Itís color is said to represent and aid in increased concentration, clarity and promote good will. Helps one to overcome flaws, fears and loneliness. Its calming effect during times of stress gives a sense of strength and courage. While all Agates are considered protection stones, White Agate in particular is credited by some to be a powerful healing stone, said to be especially beneficial for bone and marrow allergies.

Yellow Agate  Yellow Agate: While the term "Agate" typically refers to the banded varieties of this gemstone, "Yellow Agate" is the general description used by the jewelry industry to define any translucent Chalcedony Quartz that is either naturally colored or color enhanced by heat treatments or dyes. While all Agates are considered protection stones, the color yellow is thought to encourage maturity and growth. Yellow Agate is said to help the wearer increase their inner vision and introspection, while dissolving tension and strengthening rational thought.


SEE AGATE BEADS

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Alabaster: This substance is sulphate of lime or gypsum. Alabaster is mostly white in color, sometimes it will have just a "hint" of soft colors as well.. It is a very soft stone, 2 on a scale of 1-10 and is therefore used as an ornamental stone in sculpture and is easily carved into jewelry, charms, etc. It is especially popular in Italy, its country of origin (Volterra, Tuscany). Alabaster is the gemstone which honors the 37th wedding anniversary.


SEE ALABASTER BEADS

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Alaskan Jade: (See Jade)

Albite Jade: (See Jade)

Amazonite: (sometimes called "Amazon Stone") is a semi-opaque to opaque variety of microcline Feldspar that varies from light verdigris green to a bluish green, with mottled and sometimes light striations. The blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water. Amazonite is a relatively soft stone, ranging from 5-6 on the Moh's scale. It is most commonly found in the United States, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Russia, Australia, Namibia.

Amazonite derives its name from the Amazon river, and was used extensively by the people of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and the Sudan. It is also referred to as the "stone of courage," others believing the stone to be named after the legendary Amazon women warriors. Amazonite is credited for enhancing creative expression, aligning astral bodies, giving one a sense of unity with life, and improving self worth. Itís considered to be a soothing stone that offers confidence and works on the throat chakra. Amazonite is also called the "hope stone" by many, in the belief that it helps to inspire confidence and hope.


SEE AMAZONITE BEADS

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Amazon Jade: (See Amazonite)

Amber:  begins as sticky resin oozed from ancient pine trees. Small insects, plant material, feathers, dirt, debris and other small objects in the path of the flow became entrapped. Over time, through a process of heat and pressure, the resin hardens and fossilizes to become stone. Amber increases in value with the rarity and perfection of an entrapped object. Complete insect specimens are rare and command top price. Deposits have been found that range between 360 and one million years old and belong between the Carboniferous and Pleistocene geological periods. Amber can range in color from dark brown to a light almost clear lemon yellow, and is sometimes color enhanced through a heat process finishing what nature started. Most of the natural Amber sold on the jewelry market is from the region of the Baltic Sea or the Dominican Republic.

The gemstone Amber is one of the birthstones listed for the Sun Sign of Taurus. Other properties said to be attributed to Amber include love, strength, luck, healing, protection, calming for hyperactivity and stressed nerves. Also credited for being helpful in finding humor and joy. Legend says that Amber was believed to provide magicians and sorcerers with special enhanced powers. Some believe it to also be beneficial for removing energy blockages and strengthening the physical body as well as enhancing altered states of consciousness.


SEE AMBER BEADS

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American Jade: (See Jade)

Amethyst: comes from the Greek word A, meaning "not" and Methuskein, meaning "to intoxicate"; a reference to the ancient belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. It is the most highly valued and recognizable gemstone of the macrocrystalline Quartz family. It is prized as a semiprecious gem for its violet color. It contains more iron oxide (Fe2O3) than any other variety of Quartz, and experts believe that the color is the result of its iron content.

It is said that Amethyst magnifies psychic abilities and right-brain activity. It is credited for strengthening the  immune system, while energizing and purifying the blood. Some believe it to also be beneficial in relieving headaches and improving blood sugar imbalance. Amethyst is the modern birthstone for the month of February and people born under the zodiac sign of Aquarius (Water Bearer).  It is also the anniversary gemstone representing the 4th and 6th year of marriage.


SEE AMETHYST BEADS

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Apache Tears: are small rounded Obsidian nuggets, embedded with a grayish-white pearlite, that have been naturally rounded and smoothed by wind and water. The name comes from an Apache legend which tells of a band of warriors who were surrounded by the Cavalry and driven from their mountain hideout to the edge of a cliff. Rather than be captured, they chose to jump. When their wives happened upon them they were overcome by their grief and cried black tears, which hardened and can still be found at the base of mountain ranges till this day.

It is said that carrying an Apache Tear can help one cope with loss, sorrow and grief. Like all varieties of Obsidian, it is believed by some to be beneficial in releasing emotions and promoting forgiveness by helping one to remove self-limiting blocks.  For this reason, Apache Tears are said to also be useful as a reminder when you want to let go of a bad habit,  addiction, or change a negative pattern.

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Aragonite:  is a Calcium Carbonate, sometimes with some Strontium, Lead, and Zinc (CaCO3 ). Aragonite varies in color and can be white, gray, colorless, yellow, pale green, violet, or brown. It is also the primary mineral that makes up the organic compound commonly known as Mother of Pearl. It was first discovered in Aragon province, Spain where its name derived. Other primary sources for Aragonite are Mexico, Morocco, New Mexico, and Arizona.

Aragonite is said to be a grounding stone. It is often used to center and ground physical energies and is said to be very useful during stressful times. Aragonite is also believed to stabilize the base chakra, as well as strengthening one's connection with the earth. It is credited for warming the extremities by bringing energy through the entire body, promoting calcium absorption, as well as relieving night twitches and muscle spasms. Said to foster truth, stability, understanding and clear perception.


SEE ARAGONITE BEADS

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Australian Jade: (See Jade)

Autumn Jasper:  (See Jasper or Epidot)

Aventurine: is a translucent to opaque variety of Quartz that measures a hardness of 6.5 on the Moh's scale. It is best recognizable by its inclusions of shiny minerals, usually mica or hematite, that give the stone a sparkling effect known as 'aventurescence'. It derives its name from the Italian term "a ventura," which means "by chance". Aventurine ranges in color from green, peach, brown, blue and a creamy green. Deposits are found in Chile, Spain, Russia, Brazil, Austria, and Tanzania.

Green Aventurine: is the star sign for Libra and the planetary stone of Taurus. Legends say that it is an all-purpose healer, used to reduce stress, develop confidence, imagination and improve prosperity. A story from ancient Tibet says that Aventurine was used to improve near-sightedness and to increase the wearer's creativity. Many believe that Aventurine has the capacity to calm a troubled spirit and bring about inner peace.

Peach Aventurine: is said to help with decision making and boosts creativity.

Red Aventurine: is said to enhance creativity and the ability to see possibilities. Believed to bring prosperity and lessen negativity.


SEE AVENTURINE BEADS

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Azurite: (also called "Lazurite") is an intense deep blue colored copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. It is also known as 'Chessylite' after the Chessy-les-Mines near Lyon, France, where striking specimens have been found. A fairly soft stone, it registers a hardness between 3 and 4 on the Moh's scale. Different sources claim the name is derived from the Persian word "lazhward" or from the Arabic word "azul", both of which mean "blue". It often occurs with Malachite, Chrysocolla or Turquoise areas with copper deposits. Azurite is found in Australia, Chile, France, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, the southwestern USA, and Zaire.


SEE AZURITE BEADS

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Black Agate:  (See Agate)

Black Onyx:  (See Onyx)

Blackstone: is another name used for Black Jasper, a variety of microcrystalline silicon dioxide--a form of Chalcedony with a Moh's hardness of 7. Blackstone (Black Jasper) is said to have a highly protective energy. It also has very healing energy. Blackstone is said to bring good luck to the bearer in a fight, whether it be a mental, political, legal, or other type of fight. It is also used for protection against lightning. Blackstone is said to have energies of determining value; It was used as a touchstone for determining gold content in allows for thousands of years. In addition it has the other properties of Jasper. Physically, Blackstone is said to be helpful for relieving pain, stomach ailments, foot problems, and hip Dysplagia. Blackstone is related to the root chakra.


SEE BLACKSTONE BEADS

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Block:  is the general term used to describe either a reconstituted or man-made gemstone reproduction which may or may not contain any natural byproduct or stone partials. The reference to "block" more often describes the process whereby a mixture of resins and dyes are combined to produce a loaf sized block suitable for carving small heshi beads and intricate pieces for inlay work.

 

Bloodstone: (also called "Heliotrope"), is a green stone with red spots. It also occurs in shades of dark green with red, brown and multicolored blotches. The iron minerals cause the deep red and brown colors.  Bloodstone is the dark-green variety of the silica mineral Chalcedony that has nodules of bright-red Jasper distributed throughout its mass. Its physical properties are those of Quartz.  Polished sections therefore show red spots on a dark-green background, and from the resemblance of these to drops of blood it derives its name. "Heliotrope" derives its name from Greek words meaning "sun" and "turning". In the Middle Ages, Bloodstone was attributed special powers as the spots were thought to be the blood of Jesus Christ. It was used in sculptures representing flagellation and martyrdom. Bloodstone is found in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Africa and the USA (Wyoming).

In ancient times, Bloodstone was thought to be able to stop hemorrhages with the merest touch. Bloodstone is said to relieve stomach and bowel pain, strengthen blood purifying organs and improve blood circulation. Bloodstone has a positive influence on a bladder.  Bloodstone is also used to help one become more knowledgeable in the ways of the world and is believed to be a very magical stone.


SEE BLOODSTONE BEADS

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Blue Agate: (See Agate)

Blue Goldstone:  (See Goldstone)

Blue Lace Agate:  (See Agate)

Blue Onyx:  (See Onyx)

Blue Quartz:  (See Quartz)

Brecciated Jasper:  (See Jasper)

Butter Jade:  (See Jade)

 



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Candy Jade:  (See Jade)

Carnelian: (also called "Cornelian") is a translucent, semiprecious variety of the silica mineral Chalcedony Quartz that owes its red to reddish brown color to dispersed hematite (iron oxide). It is a close relative of Sard, differing only in the shade of red and has a hardness of 7 on the Moh's scale. Carnelian is also referred to by other trade names like, Red Chalcedony and Red Agate. Carnelian is mined in Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, India, U.S., Russia and parts of Africa.

Carnelian is the zodiac birthstone of Virgo (Aug. 22 to Sept. 22). Hindu astrologers name it as a secondary stone for Aries (Mar. 21 to April 20) and Scorpio (Oct. 24 to Nov. 22). Carnelian is associated with Thursday and Friday. The Arabs associated it with the month of July. It is referred to as a "sun stone" and thought to symbolize the element of fire. Carnelian is also considered to be a stone of great spirituality. In addition, it is believed by some to be a medicinal gem with a wondrous capacity for bestowing mental and physical healing properties.


SEE CARNELIAN BEADS

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Catlinite:  (also called "Pipestone") is a beautiful, deep rose-red color with occasional flecking named after the 19th century American artist, George Catlin. Catlinite is a soft red siltstone (or hardened clay) that occurs as outcroppings in southwestern Minnesota. Its reference to "Pipestone" comes from the Native Americanís historical use of the material for creating ceremonial objects and ornamentation. It is still considered a sacred stone by the indigenous people of the plains, and remains the stone of choice for their traditional prayer pipes. Pipestone is very soft with Moh's Scale hardness of 1-1/2 to 2.


SEE PIPESTONE BEADS

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Catseye:  True cat's eye is a form of chrysoberyl Quartz, sometimes called "Cymophane". It is a rare and valuable gemstone, which is often underrated as being a "semi-precious" stone. "Chatoyancy" or "chatoyance", is literally taken from the French word meaning "cat's eye". The effect is a strong banded reflection caused by tube-like or needle-like crystals running along the length of the stone. The optical effect is seen best in chrysoberyl Quartz varieties, but is also found in a few other gemstones like Star Sapphires and Tigereyes. Genuine Catseye Quartz is very rare. Most of the inexpensive Catseye sold on the jewelry market today is a manmade version of quartz crystal glass.


SEE CATSEYE BEADS

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Chalcedony: is a variety of Quartz that is formed, not of one single crystal, but of finely grained micro crystals is known as microcrystalline. The variety of Chalcedony Quartz available is even greater than that of  macrocrystalline Quartz because it includes cryptocrystalline with patterns as well as a wide range of solid colors. Agate, Jasper, Onyx and Carnelian are all members of the microcrystalline and/or Chalcedony family. Chalcedony has a waxy luster, and may be semitransparent or translucent. It measures a hardness of 7 on the Moh's scale. The term "Chalcedony" is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor, in modern English usually spelled Chalcedon, today the Kadikoy district of Istanbul.

It is said that Chalcedony was used as a sacred stone by some Native America tribes, promoting stability within their ceremonial activities. Chalcedony is said to augment emotional balance, vitality, stamina, endurance, kindness, charity and friendliness. It is believed to alleviate hostilities, irritability and melancholy.


SEE CHALCEDONY BEADS

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Chalk Turquoise: is a term used to describe a lower grade Turquoise that has been dyed and stabilized with hardeners to produce a material that's durable enough to use in jewelry with a pleasing turquoise color. It has the same phosphate composition as Turquoise, only with lower amounts of copper, aluminum and/or iron. It's the metal content that results in the green to blue turquoise color. More recently, the name "Chalk Turquoise" is being applied to Reconstituted Turquoise or dyed Magnesite (MgCO3). Chalk Turquoise has become a popular substitute for high-grade Turquoise that is becoming increasingly more expensive and rare. It can now be found in a variety of new and contemporary colors such as lime green, bright yellow, pink and lavender.

Cherry Quartz:  (See Quartz)

Chinese Jade:  (See Jade)

Chinese Turquoise:  (See Turquoise)

Citrine: also called "Citrine Quartz" is variety of Quartz. It ranges in color from a pale yellow to brown. Citrine has ferric iron impurities, and is rarely found naturally. Most commercial Citrine is in fact artificially heated Amethyst or Smokey Quartz. Brazil is the leading producer of naturally mined Citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Citrine registers a hardness of 7 on the Mohís scale

Citrine is said to stimulate one's mental capacities, enhance creativity and intuition, and strengthening self confidence. Gives emotional control while making one more alert. Helpful in assisting, acquiring and maintaining wealth. Citrine is also one of three traditional birthstones for the month of November.


SEE CITRINE BEADS

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Coral: is among the most ancient of gemstone materials. It is not actually a stone, but rather the calcified structures of once living tiny marine animals called "polyps", whose habitat resembles tree branches. Coral ranges in color from white to red, with a Mohís Scale hardness of 3.86. Coral is found in sea beds ranging from 20 to 1,000 feet in depth, and is becoming increasing more valuable and harder to find as our reefs begin to shrink due to pollution and overuse.

Coral is said to be good for helping to settling the restlessness within. Such as tempers, rages, and compulsive disorders. Helps to balance and center. Also said to protect against depression and despondency. Believed by some to provide protection and guard against violence, accidents and thefts. Said to calm emotions and restore harmony, as well as being beneficial in the relief of fevers, colds, Asthma and digestive problems.


SEE CORAL BEADS

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Chrysocolla: is a copper bearing mineral that is often confused with Turquoise. A relatively soft stone, it has variegated colors of blue and green and is most often found wherever copper deposits occur, especially in the southwestern US, Australia, Chili, Zaire, England and France. Chrysocolla is associated with the feminine energy and is said to foster communication and creativity.


SEE CHRYSOCOLLA BEADS

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Crystal Quartz:  (See Quartz)



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Dalmatian Jasper:  (See Jasper)

Dalmatian Stone:  (See Jasper)

Dalmatiner:  (See Jasper)

Denim Lapis:  (See Lapis)

Dumortierite: (also called "Dumorterite"), is a fibrous and variably colored aluminum boro-silicate mineral, Al6.5-7BO3(SiO4)3(O,OH)3, named after Eugene Dumortier, a French paleontologist. Dumortierite is found in aluminum rich regionally metamorphosed rocks and in pegmatite veins. The crystals are vitreous and vary in color from brown, grey, blue, and greenish blue to more rare violet and pink. It has a Mohís hardness of 8.5. The most common form of Dumortierite is Dumortierite quartz (a.k.a. Blue Quartz) and its color is derived from an abundance of dumortierite inclusions. It is mined in Canada, France, Italy, Madagascar, Namibia, U.S. Nevada, Norway, Poland and Sri Lanka.

Blue Dumortierite: is sometimes mistaken for Sodalite and has been used as imitation Lapis Lazuli. Blue Dumortierite is said to enhance organizational abilities, self discipline and orderliness. Also believed to encourage one to see and accept reality.

Red Dumortierite: is closely related to Jasper, and is also referred to as "Spotted Jasper." It contains mottle or swirled patterns of cream to grey combined with pinks to brick reds.


SEE DUMORTIERITE BEADS

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Epidot: more commonly called "Autumn Jasper", is a close relative of Unakite. This gemstone of mottled red, green and pink symbolizes emotional security and is therefore believed to give emotional stability to the wearer.


SEE EPIDOT (AUTUMN JASPER) BEADS

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Fancy Agate:  (see Agate)

Fancy Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Feldspar: derives its name from the German words: "feld", meaning "field", and "spar", meaning "easily cleaved material". It refers to any of the several groups of crystalline minerals that consist of aluminum silicates with either potassium, sodium, calcium, or barium. Feldspar is an essential component of nearly all crystalline rocks and constitutes a total of 60% of the earth's crust. Itís hardness ranges from 6 to 6.5 on the Mohís scale.

Feldspar is said to help one to let go of the old and embrace the new. Inspires one to set and reach new goals, and assists in self-awareness and self-love. Also claimed to be useful in the treatment of skin and muscular problems.


SEE FELDSPAR BEADS

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Flame Jasper:  (See Jasper)

Fluorite: (also called "Fluorspar") is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, (CaF2). The name Fluorite is derived from the Latin "fluo", meaning "flow". Fluorite is most popular for itís rich purple color which rivals that of Amethyst, but also for its wide range of other colors including yellow, blue, pink and green which can often be found banded together in a single stone creating a rainbow effect. The ancient Egyptians used Fluorite to carve statues and scarabs, the Chinese have used it in carvings for over 300 years. Locations where Fluorite is mined include Canada, USA, South Africa, Thailand, Peru, Mexico, China, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Norway, England, and Germany.

Fluorite is said to absorb and neutralize negative vibrations, while also making one more receptive to the vibrations of other stones. Fluorite is known as the "Genius Stone" and is said to increase concentration and help in decision making.


SEE FLUORITE BEADS

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Fire Jasper:  (See Jasper)



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Garnet: The word "Garnet" comes from the Latin word "granatus", meaning "grain"; thought to be a derivative of the term "punica granatum" (pomegranate) because the Garnet crystals embedded in rock had the color and shape of pomegranate seeds.. While Garnets are most associated with the color red, they occur in every color, from transparent to opaque, and include different varieties based on mineral composition. The six most common species of Garnet are Pyrope, Almadine, Spessartite, Grossular, Hessonite, Tsavorite, Uvarovite and Andradite. Garnets of deep red, violet-red and black come from Arizona in America, South America, Ceylon, India, and Australia. Green, dark green, cinnamon, brownish yellow, and jade green garnets come from Switzerland, Ceylon, and South Africa. Bright apple green Garnets (called Tsavorite) come from Russia and Finland. Typically the standard deep red-brown colors you see in stores are inexpensive and come from India, South America, Russia and North America. Garnets range from a 7.0 to 7.5 on the Mohís scale of hardness and is the traditional birthstone for the month of January. It also symbolizes the 2nd and 6th wedding anniversary.

Garnets are said to hold power for healing, strength, and protection and are often worn to relieve inflammations of the skin. It is also believed to regulate the heart and blood flow and aid in curing depression. In earlier times, Garnets were exchanged as gifts between friends to demonstrate their affection for each other and to insure that they would meet again.


SEE GARNET BEADS

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Golden Leaf Agate: (See Agate)

Golden Leaf Jasper: (See Jasper)

Golden Tigereye:  (See Tigereye)

Goldstone: Is a manmade stone, a type of synthetic glass made with copper or copper salts in the presence of a reducing flame. Under normal oxidative conditions, copper ions meld into the silica to produce transparent bluish-green glass; when the reduced Goldstone melt cools, the copper remains in atomic isolation and precipitates into small crystalline clusters. The finished product can take a smooth polish and be carved into beads, figurines, or other items suitable for semiprecious stone. In fact, Goldstone is often mistaken or misrepresented as a natural material.

The manufacturing process for Goldstone was discovered in seventeenth-century Venice by the Miotti family, which was granted an exclusive license by the Doge. Persistent folklore attributes the discovery and secrets of Goldstone to an unnamed Italian monastic order, giving rise to the alternate name "Monk's Gold" or "Monkstone". Another name, "Stellaria", is based on the starry internal reflections.

Goldstone has been called the stone of ambition and drive. Because of the copper, Goldstone is believed to embody many of the metaphysical properties of copper, including strengthening the circulatory system, strengthening bones, and easing arthritis pain.


SEE GOLDSTONE BEADS

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Green Agate:  (see Agate)

Green Aventurine:  (see Aventurine)

Green Turquoise:  (see Turquoise)



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Heated:  Gemstones are sometimes heat treated to enhance color and clarity, finishing the process that nature started. Color enhancing by heat in most varieties and species of gem is permanent and stable under normal wear and repair.

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Hematine: (also Hemalyke or Hemalike) is an reconstituted version of Hematite. Hematine is widely used in jewelry because pure mineral Hematite is fragile and brittle. It is made of ground Hematite or iron oxide mixed with a binder or resin. Hematine is sometimes magnetized to further simulate the properties of raw mineral hematite.

Hemalike: (also Hemalyke or Hematine) is an reconstituted version of Hematite. Hemalike is widely used in jewelry because pure mineral Hematite is fragile and brittle. It is made of ground Hematite or iron oxide mixed with a binder or resin. Hemalike is sometimes magnetized to further simulate the properties of raw mineral hematite.

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Hemalyke: (also Hemalike or Hematine) is an reconstituted version of Hematite. Hemalyke is widely used in jewelry because pure mineral Hematite is fragile and brittle. It is made of ground Hematite or iron oxide mixed with a binder or resin. Hemalyke is sometimes magnetized to further simulate the properties of raw mineral hematite.

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Hematite: is the mineral form of Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. It is a very common mineral, colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Hematite is also referred to as "Kidney Stone" because of it's rust red color when ground into a powder or scratched onto a surface. The name Hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood (haima). Hematite in its natural form is soft and brittle and is between 5-6 on the Mohís scale of hardness. Black Hematite has a silvery-gray luster while other forms, such as Tiger Iron, have alternating bands of silver and black Hematite mixed with Red Jasper, Chert or even Tigereye Quartz. Good specimens of Hematite come from England, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and the Lake Superior region of the United States and Canada. However, most of the silvery-black Hematite sold on the jewelry market today is a reconstituted form that is made by grinding up Hematite, adding a binder and then press-molding or carving it. Sometimes called "Hemalyke" or "Hematine", it is identical to Hematite in appearance and weight, except more stable and wearer friendly.

Since Hematite is associated with blood, it is said to aid in the treatment of blood-related illnesses such as hemophilia, anemia, heart, kidney and liver diseases, cardio-vascular weakness, menstrual cramps, and nose bleeds. Hematite was also believed by Native Americans to be a remedy for dental problems, pimples, canker sores and alcohol abuse. Because of it's magnetic properties, it is also said to help with muscle spasms, joint pain and arthritis.

Hematite is also associated with the ability to bring about a calm mental state, improve memory, mental focus and concentration, bolster self-confidence, and increase the effectiveness of logical processes of the brain. Considered to be an excellent stone for treating mental stress, and has a reputation for helping people bring order to mentally chaotic situations by drawing tension out of the body, neutralizing negativity and releasing anger. Hematite is also recognize its power for increasing mental function and is believed it can improve memory, mathematical processes, logic, creativity and mental dexterity. Finally, it is said to be an excellent aid in meditation, recognized for calming the mental state, tuning the consciousness and increasing the pathways that lead to inner knowledge.


SEE HEMATITE BEADS

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Honey Jade:  (See Jade)

Howlite: This calcium silicoborate (Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5) is typically an opaque white to grey, with grey to black streaks in an erratic, often web-like pattern. Howlite is named after mineralogist Henry How, who first discovered the gemstone in Nova Scotia during the 19th century. It has a Mohís scale hardness of 3.5, and because it is easily dyed, it is most commonly used to simulate more expensive gemstone varieties such as Turquoise and Lapis. North America is the world's primary source of Howlite.

It is said that Howlite is the stone of memory, knowledge and progress, and is claimed to encourage reasoning, observation, discernment, patience and tact. It also is believed to eliminate pain, stress and anger, and help balance calcium levels in the body, aiding in absorption and distribution.


SEE HOWLITE BEADS

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Imperial Turquoise: is not a true Turquoise, rather the industry term given to a form of Jasper (Chocolate Jasper) which has been color enhanced and stabilized to produce a unique and richly colored stone truly worthy of its name.


SEE IMPERIAL TURQUOISE BEADS

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Inlay: or "Channel Inlay", refers to a jeweler's technique whereby small pieces of material, such as gemstone and shell, are fitted together much like a puzzle or mosaic to create a finished pattern or design.


SEE INLAID BEADS

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Iolite: is a popular and interesting gemstone, and is the gem variety of the mineral cordierite. It is a transparent, violet-blue, light blue, blue, rich blue-violet gemstone that has been compared to a light blue Sapphire. It is this reason that it is sometimes called a "Water Sapphire". The name "Iolite" comes from the Greek word for "violet", and has a Mohís scale hardness of 7. Iolite is found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Australia's Northern Territory, Namibia, Brazil, Tanzania, Madagascar, Connecticut, and the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories of Canada.

It is said that Iolite is helpful in discovering the lost parts of oneís self and hidden inner talents. It is a stone of vision and creative expression. It is also said to help one to eliminate debt by accepting responsibility which leads to successful management of money; has been a stone worn by Shamans in the past to insure accuracy of visions; and also believed to aid in the elimination of disharmony in relationships.


SEE IOLITE BEADS

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Jade: is an ornamental stone. The term "Jade" specifically applies to two different rocks, Nephrite and Jadeite, that are made up of different silicate minerals. Both types of Jade are tough, since they consist of dense, close-grained, matted aggregates, but they differ from one another in their chemical composition and colors. Nephrite ranges mainly from mid to dark green or grey-green, but it can also be white, yellowish or reddish. Rarer, and somewhat tougher, Jadeite displays hues which include green, but also white or pink, and reds, blacks, browns and violets. In both minerals, the way the color is distributed varies a great deal. Only in the very finest Jade is the color evenly distributed. Both Nephrite and Jadeite often have veins, blemishes and streaks running through them, though these may not always be regarded as flaws. On the contrary, some of these patterns are considered particularly valuable.

!!! It is important to note the term "Jade" is being used more commonly on the jewelry market today to refer to any number of stones that closely resemble Jade, but are not a true Jadeite or Nephrite.  Serpentine, Chalcedony, Grossular Garnet, Jasper and Quartz are often nicknamed, mislabeled and/or misrepresented as Jade. Below is the *short* list of the many varieties of stones referred to as "Jade", along with a more accurate description of their corresponding meanings. 

Afghanistan Jade: (also called "Afghan Jade") is actually a form of Serpentine called "Bowenite" named after the country where it is mined.  It is translucent to opaque, varying in color from white, light to dark green and can also occur with yellow, black or pink.

African Jade: (also called "Transvaal Jade") is actually a dark green Grossular Garnet which is mined in South Africa and resembles Nephrite Jade, only darker in color with more opacity. It's dark green color comes from fossilized algae that is over 2 billion years old.

Alaskan Jade: is actually a mineral formation called "Pectolite" which is mined in Point Barrow, Alaska where it derives its name.

Albite Jade: (also called "Water Mill Stone" or "Mawsitsit" ) is not a genuine Jadeite or Nephrite, rather a mineral combination of white "albite" Feldspar and green Actinolite. Albite Jade tends to have a white streaked look with the minerals it combines with.

Amazon Jade: is not a genuine Jadeite or Nephrite, rather a form of green to bluish green Feldspar more commonly referred to as "Amazonite".

American Jade: (also called "California Jade" or "Californite") is actually a type of green Vesuvianite that is also referred to as green "Idocrase". Deposits are found in Happy Jack mine, Siskiyou County and near Pulga, Butte County, California. For this reason, it has also been given the names "Feather River Jade", "Happy Camp Jade", "Pulga Jade" and "Vesuvianite Jade".

Australian Jade: (also called "Jadine") is actually Chrysoprase, a variety of natural green microcrystaline Quartz called "Chalcedony" that contains small quantities of nickel. Its color is normally a semi-opaque apple green, but can also vary to dark green.

Butter Jade: (also called Butterstone) has a creamy yellow color and is another form of African Jade and/or Grossular Garnet (see above). It is an over 2.5 billion year old mineral specimen from the Greenbelt zone of South Africa which is known to contain micro fossil evidence of the first life on earth. Sometimes referred to as the "Dream Stone", it is said to help one to remember and resolve our dreams, transform negative energy into positive energy, and build confidence.

Candy Jade: is created from a white Jadeite or Chalcedony Quartz that is put through a complex heating and color enhancing process that penetrates the surface through to the center with vibrant colors.

Chinese Jade: is a Nephrite Jade with a Moh's hardness of 6 to 6.5. To the Chinese, Jade is the most prized mineral, even if it is less expensive than gold or diamond. Jade is felt to be more 'alive' and is associated with merit, morality, dignity and grace.

Fu, Lu, Shou Jade: is the Chinese name given to a tri-colored Jade. Fu, Lu and Shou are three deities representing the three desires of ordinary people. Fu symbolizes Fortune and wealth, Lu symbolizes rank and success, and Shou represents longevity. Wearing this multi-colored stone is believed to provide help in the pursuit of these desires.

Honey Jade: is actually a variety of semi-translucent golden Jasper with a very similar look and mineral composition to Jade. Honey Jade is believed to be a powerful emotional balancing stone. It is said to radiate divine unconditional love. It dispels negativity from the third chakra (solar plexus) and has been used by the ancients {and some current} primitive tribes as a sacred stone, assisting one in access to the spiritual worlds.

Imperial Jade: refers to emerald green variety of Jadeite which comes from only one mine in Myanmar (Burma). Only Jadeite with elements of Chromium (Cr++) are considered Imperial Jade. They are deep green in color and very valuable. The paler green formation of the same stone is due to the presence of iron (Fe) but is not considered to be "Imperial Jade" and therefore not as valuable as the dark green variety.

Imperial Mexican Jade: or "Mexican Jade" is not a genuine jade (Jadeite or Nephrite), rather a color enhanced Calcite (Marble) that has been dyed green.

Jadeite: is the real deal.  It is a genuine Jade. Prized for its hardness and ability to be intricately carved, Jadeite is the rarer of the two types of Jade, the other being Nephrite, and therefore is more expensive and valuable.

Lantian Jade: is actually a form of Serpentine called "Tremolite". It is generally yellow and light blue and is much softer than true Jade. It derives its name from where it is mined in Lantian Xian county of the Shaanxi province of central China.

Malaysia Jade: is a term used to describe a dyed or color enhanced, translucent variety of Quartz, typically Chalcedony.

Mountain Jade: is a term used to describe a type of dyed or color enhanced Dolomite Marble.

Nephrite Jade: is the real deal.  It derives its name from the Latin term: "lapis nephriticus", meaning "Kidney Stone," since it was often worn to remedy diseases of the kidneys. Nephrite Jade is the second type of the two minerals commonly known as Jade, Jadeite being the other.  Nephrite is more common than Jadeite and is generally forest green and a bit fibrous in appearance with a Moh's hardness of 6 to 6.5.  While mainly mined in Canada, it is also found in Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, China, US and Russia.

New Jade: is a form of semi-translucent Serpentine that is commonly a light to medium green color in soft hues and mottled designs. *New Jade* Serpentine is said to have the same spiritual values as green Jade. Because it produces a tranquil mood, it helps us when we're depressed, especially when we feel stuck in a situation. Like green Jade, *New Jade* Serpentine can help you get grounded, so you can live with the situation and feel more tranquil while you're doing it.

Peace Jade: is actually a mixture of Serpentine, Stichtite, and Quartz. The result is a beautiful stone showing subtle blends of spring green and creamy white with the occasional hint of lavender.

Red Jade: is form of Jadeite with a Moh's hardness of 6.  Red jade is due to the oxidation process of ferrous oxide which is usually found on the crust surface. !!! On the jewelry market, the color is often enhanced by heat treatment or dyes. More typically, *Red Jade* is often the common term used for a translucent Chalcedony Quartz that has be color enhanced or dyed. Also referred to as "Malaysian Jade".

Shoochow Jade: isnít an actual Jade (Jadeite or Nephrite), rather a form of antigorite Serpentine called "Bowenite" that is mined in Shoochow China. It is hard and compact, ranging in color from green, blue-green to grey-green with shades approaching yellow. Other areas of deposit are found in Afghanistan, China, New Zealand, South Africa, and US Rhode Island where it has been adopted as the state mineral. However, its scarcity on the jewelry market is due to low demand and world prices which have made it uneconomical to mine.

Snow Jade: is the common term used to describe a translucent to opaque white variety of Quartz. More accurately referred to as "Snow Quartz" or "Milky Quartz".

Xui Jade: (also called "Xiuyan Jade") is not a genuine Jadeite or Nephrite, rather a form of Serpentine - Mg6[Si4O10](OH) - named after Xiuyan city in LiaoNing province of northeastern China where it is mined. This same mineral is also mined in Gansu China where it is called "Jiuquan Jade" and in Guangdong where it is referred to as "Xinyi Jade." This form of Serpentine is usually translucent and light green color. The most desirable specimens are clear, watery in appearance without clusters of black or solid white inclusions. While it is fairly uniform in color, some variations in the saturation of green can produce colors which range from ivory to dark green.

Zi-Pao Jade: (also known as "Purple Jade"), is from the Guizhou Province of China. Zipao Jade, with its colors of green and dark purple, is a mineral made up of Sericite and Ferric Oxide with a Moh's hardness of 3 to 5.


SEE JADE BEADS

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Jasper: is a fine grained opaque crypto-crystalline variety of Quartz (Chalcedony) that forms in a multitude of varying colors and patterns. Found worldwide, Jasper often contains organic material and mineral oxides which give it interesting patterns, bands and colors. Its hardness ranges from 6.5-7 on the Moh's scale and was a favorite gem in ancient times and is referenced in Greek, Hebrew, Assyrian and Latin literature. Legend says that Jasper would drive away evil spirits and protect against snake and spider bites. In the fourth century, it was thought to bring about the rain. Jasper is believed to be protective. Credited for aligning the chakras, balancing the yin yang energies, as well as stabilizing and healing. Jasper is also one of the birth stones listed for the sun sign of Virgo and regarded the mystical birthstone for the month of October.

Autumn Jasper: (also called "Epidot") is a close relative of Unakite. This gemstone of mottled red, green and pink symbolizes emotional security and is therefore believed to give emotional stability to the wearer.

Brecciated Jasper: is best recognized by its spotted and swirled blends of black, rich browns, brick reds, and creams. It is believed to enhance organizational skills, relax and bring about sense of wholeness, encourage kinship with animals and alleviate animal related allergies. Said to inspire happiness, create a more positive outlook on life, and relieve stress.

Dalmatian Jasper: (also called "Dalmatian Stone" or "Dalmatiner") is named after the Dalmatian dog breed, whose spotted coat it resembles. It is believed to be beneficial in increasing patience and removing disillusionments while inspiring loyalty to one's partner, making it helpful towards fostering long term relationships.

Fancy Jasper:  is an opaque mix of creamy beige or gray with lavender, green, pink, orange or red swirls and speckles.  It is considered a stone of gentleness and relaxation, believing it enhances one's ability to relax by inspiring tranquility, comfort & wholeness. Fancy Jasper is credited for embodying both nurturing and protective energies.

Flame Jasper:  (also called "Fire Jasper") contains swirled and mottled shades of red, gray and earthy browns in both opaque and translucent colors.

Golden Leaf Jasper: (also called "Golden Leaf Agate") is a deep brown microcrystalline stone with mid to dark tan or gold patterns pressed through it. Although the term "Agate" usually refers to a more translucent and/or banded form of Chalcedony, the terms are used interchangeably to describe this particular stone which is primarily an opaque brown with a gold color surfacing from deep inside. While all Jaspers are considered protection stones, Gold Leaf Jasper in particular is said to help lift depression and increase friendliness and happiness.

Kambaba Jasper: comes from Africa. It contains a exotic mix of black, greens and browns in patterns of speckles and concentric rings. It is believed to help with the soothing of nerves and state of mind. It is also said to be beneficial for plant growth and health, as well as helpful for dietary stabilization, absorption of vitamins and minerals, and ridding the body of toxins.

Kiwi Jasper: and "Sesame Jasper" are interchangeable trade names for a black speckled stone often mixed with translucent crystalline formations. To avoid confusion, we use the term "Kiwi Jasper" to refer to the light green variety of this stone while "Sesame Jasper" better describes the white or lighter colored form of this mineral.

Leopardskin Jasper: is mottled with red, yellow, brown and pinkish spots like the coat of a leopard. It is believed by some to assist and protect during physical and spiritual travel. Also said to encourage proper decision making and responsibility.

Ocean Jasper: (also called "Orbicular Jasper") was discovered as recently as 1997 along the shores of Madagascar, which is how it came by its name. It is distinguished by its earthy brown tones blended in swirls and circular patterns. Like all Jaspers, Ocean Jasper is considered a protective stone. It is said to also be beneficial to the digestion system as well as removing toxins from the body.

Picture Jasper: is best recognized by its streaks of earthy browns that look like desert and mountain landscapes. Picture jasper is said to help with the re-evaluation of life's issues and aid one in finding answers.

Poppy Jasper: contains mottled shades of red, pink and black gemstone, and derives its name because it looks like a field of pink and red poppy flowers. Like its close relative, Brecciated Jasper, It is said to benefit one's relationship with animals and help alleviate animal allergies.

Rainbow Jasper: contains banded colors of red, brown and tan resembling a rainbow. It is considered a "Sustaining Stone," and believed to be helpful in times of emotional fatigue or stress. Credited for its properties to both calm and sooth, it is believed to be beneficial in collecting one's thoughts so as to help one feel more secure and relaxed when making decisions.

Rainforest Jasper: (also called "Ryolite") is an opaque mossy green gemstone sometimes flecked with tans, brown and occasional clear spots. Rainforest Jasper is said to encourage change and creativity, resolve insecurity, increase self-esteem, foster healthy relationships and improve communication skills.

Red Jasper:
is a rich red stone that sometimes contains dark grey or black stripes of Quartz. Red Jasper is said to help with remembering dreams, as well as protecting its owner from danger and helping one to balance an unfair situation.

Red River Jasper: (also called Lightening Jasper) is a red with off white, tan, gray to black streaks that comes from Africa. Is said to help promote courage, alertness and spiritual energy when faced with an unpleasant task. Also credited for enhancing blood flow and stimulating circulation.

Ribbon Jasper: (also spelled Riband Jasper) is a banded Variety of Jasper with parallel, ribbonlike stripes of alternating colors or shades of color.

Sesame Jasper: and "Kiwi Jasper" are interchangeable trade names for a black speckled stone often mixed with translucent crystalline formations. To avoid confusion, we use the term "Sesame Jasper" to refer to the lighter, white variety of this stone while "Kiwi Jasper" better describes the pale green version of this mineral.

Silver Leaf Jasper: is a finely patterned and banded Jasper containing shades of cream, black, browns or reds. It is believed by some to provide protection and good luck.

Succor Creek Jasper: is a unique variety of mottled green and red Picture Jasper from the Succor Creek Canyon in Southeast Oregon.

Tiger Jasper:  is best recognized by its golden background streaked with dark brown stripes, resembling the markings of a Tiger.

Zebra Jasper:  contains stripes of black or brown on a background of white, gray or tan.  Zebra Jasper is said to be very helpful with balancing energy and allowing the wearer to see both sides of a situation.
 


SEE JASPER BEADS

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Kambaba Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Kiwi Jasper: (see Jasper)

Kyanite: derives its name for the Greek word "kyanos", meaning "blue".   It is a polymorph stone with two other minerals; andalusite and sillimanite. Kyanite is an attractive mineral that has a near sapphire like blue color in some especially nice specimens. It has a unique characteristic in that it has a wide variation in hardness in the same crystal. The hardness of Kyanite is approximately 4.5 when scratched parallel to the long axis of the crystal and approximately 6.5 when scratched perpendicular to or across the long axis. As its name suggests, Kyanite is usually blue but it can also be white, gray or green and is often found in a combination of all colors. It is mined in Brazil; North Carolina and Georgia, USA; Switzerland; Russia; Serbia; India and Kenya.

Kyanite is said to encourage loyalty, honesty and tranquility while discouraging anger and confusion.


SEE KYANITE BEADS

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Labradorite:  derives its name from the Labrador Peninsula in Canada where it was first found in 1770. It is a Feldspar mineral, a series of compounds including sodium, and calcium aluminum silicates with a Mohís Scale hardness of 6. As well as being mined in Norway and the former USSR, there is also a blue semi-transparent variety called "Spectrolite" that is only found in Finland. Labradorite is gray to green with iridescent flashes of purple, blue and yellow. The reflective properties of this unique stone is also referred to as "Labradorescence".

Labradorite is said to be a power stone, allowing you to see through illusions and determine the actual form of your dreams and goals. It is excellent for strengthening intuitions.


SEE ALL LABRADORITE BEADS

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Lapis:  is the Latin word for "stone" and Lazuli from the Arabic word "azula", meaning "blue".  Lapis is defined as a stone rather than a mineral because it is a mixture of several different mineral deposits. The most distinctive being the golden inclusions and/or veins of sparkling pyrite mixed within the deep blue color that makes Lapis so unique among gemstones. Lapis Lazuli is an opaque rock that mainly consists of diopside and Lazurite. It came into being millions of years ago during the metamorphosis of lime to marble. Lapis Lazuli is an opaque dark blue color, often with golden inclusions and whitish marble veins.

Denim Lapis: is the trade name for the paler blue color phase of Lapis Lazuli, whose denim color has only become popular in recent years. Denim Lapis gets its color due to mixture with other minerals such as white calcite, occasionally speckled with yellow iron pyrites. Denim Lapis is generally not as expensive as Lapis Lazuli because it is considered a lower grade of the more popular dark blue Lapis color. It is found wherever Lapis is found: Afghanistan, Argentina, Russia, Chile, and the United States.

Lapis Lazuli: is regarded by many people around the world as the stone of friendship and truth. The blue stone is said to encourage harmony in relationships and help its wearer to be authentic and give his or her opinion openly.


SEE ALL LAPIS BEADS

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Lapis Howlite:  (See Howlite)

Lazurite: (See Azurite)

Lemon Quartz: (See Quartz)

Leopardskin Jasper:  (See Jasper)



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Magnesite: (also referred to as "Chalk Turquoise" or "Wild Horse Turquoise") is a magnesium carbonate mineral (MgCO3) similar in crystal structure as Calcite. Visually, it can be difficult to distinguish from Howlite, Dolomite or Marble. Magnesite in its natural form is typically an opaque white, but can also range in color from gray to tan and sometimes contain light to dark matrix. Because it is a relatively soft and porous stone, it takes well to color enhancements and stabilizers. Like Howlite, it is often dyed and treated with hardeners to simulate more expensive gemstones, such as Turquoise, and is remarkably close enough to be mistaken for the real thing. Magnesite is mined in Africa, China, Korea, Brazil and Europe. Recent deposits discovered near the Globe Copper Mine in southern US Arizona have become increasingly popular on the jewelry market because of its attractive Hematite matrix. Although named "Wild Horse Turquoise", by definition it is not considered a genuine Turquoise since it does not contain any natural copper (blue) or iron (green).

Magnesite was traditionally used by the Indigenous people of US California to fashion beads which were exchanged much like currency. Contemporary spiritualists believe that Magnesite encourages creativity, inspires passion, and helps one to center during meditative states.


SEE MAGNESITE BEADS

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Mahogany Obsidian:  (See Obsidian)

Malachite: is a carbonate mineral, copper (II) carbonate hydroxide Cu2CO3(OH)2. Except for the vibrant green color, the properties of Malachite are very similar to those of Azurite and the two minerals are frequently found together, although Malachite is more common than Azurite. The stone's name derives (via Latin and French) from Greek word "molochitis", meaning "mallow-green stone", and from the French word "molochē", meaning "mallow". Its banded light and dark green designs are one-of-a-kind, and give it a unique ornamental quality unlike that of any other stone with a Moh's hardness of 3.5-4. Large quantities of Malachite have been mined in the Urals. It is found in the Democratic Republic of Congo; Tsumeb, Namibia; Ural mountains, Russia; Mexico; Broken Hill, New South Wales; England; Lyon; and in the Southwestern United States especially in Arizona at Bisbee and Morenci.

Malachite is said to aid in the regeneration of body cells, as well as creating a sense of calm and peace that helps one to sleep. It has also been worn by some to detect impending danger. This beautiful green stone offers bands of varying hues and is believed by many to lend extra energy. It is said that gazing at Malachite or holding it relaxes the nervous system and calms stormy emotions. Malachite is also credited for bringing harmony into one's life as well as bestowing knowledge and patience. Traditionally, it was used as a children's talisman to ward off danger and illness. Malachite is the alternative birthstone for the zodiac signs of Capricorn and Scorpio and also represents the 13th wedding anniversary.


SEE MALACHITE BEADS

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Malaysia Jade:  (see Jade)

Marble:  is a metamorphic rock resulting from the slow crystallization of limestone or dolostone. Itís composed mostly of calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate). The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone.


SEE MARBLE BEADS

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Mexican Turquoise:  (see Turquoise)

Milky Quartz:  (see Quartz)

Montana Agate: (see Agate)

Mookite:  (also called "Mookaite" or "Moukaite") is a type of Jasper that gets its name from where itís mined in Mooka Creek, Western Australia. Mookite comes in warm, rich, earthy tones of burgundy, pink, purple, and golden yellow interlaced with creamy beige and white.

In Australia, Mookite is considered to be a healing stone that bestows strength. It is said to shield the wearer from difficult situations and to connect us to loved ones who have passed away. This gemstone is believed to bring us into the "here and now," aiding with problem assessment and decision making. Mookite is also said to help with glandular or stomach disorders, hernias, ruptures and water retention. Yoga enthusiasts use it for the first, second and third chakras.


SEE MOOKITE BEADS

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Moss Agate: (see Agate)

Mother of Pearl: (also called "MOP") is an extremely beautiful mineral that is secreted by shelled mollusks, either oysters or abalone. These mollusks secrete fine proteins whose chemical compound is calcium carbonate, the same that is found in Coral, Marble and Aragonite. While Mother of Pearl is usually a glossy or very shiny white, it can also be a slight gray or iridescent color. The reason behind Mother of Pearlís iridescence is because the platelet structure is the same size as the light waves that reflect from it.

Mother of Pearl is said to symbolism fertility and rebirth. It's luster and iridescence wear beautifully on most skin types.


SEE MOTHER OF PEARL BEADS

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Mountain Jade:  (See Jade)



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Natural Agate:  (see Agate)

Nephrite Jade:  (see Jade)

New Jade:  (see Jade or Serpentine)



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Obsidian: is a type of naturally-occurring glass that results when volcanic lava flow cools rapidly before crystallization forms. Because of itís lack of crystallization, it is considered a mineraloid, or type of natural glass, rather than a true mineral. Pure Obsidian is usually dark or black in appearance, though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities. Obsidian was revered by ancient cultures. It was one of the major barter materials and prized for its ability to be worked to razor-sharp edges for arrows and spears. It has been used since prehistoric times for making tools, masks, weapons, mirrors and jewelry.

Black Obsidian: is said to help protect the very sensitive against depression and block negativity of any kind. As a black gemstone, it symbolizes self control and resilience. Black stones are thought to have protective energies in the sense that black is the absence of light, and therefore is believed to be useful in creating invisibility

Mahogany Obsidian: is the result of iron and magnesium being introduced into the formation of the cooling lava glass. This mottled black and dark red gemstone is said to mirror back to us our own flaws so we are better able to correct them. It is believed by some to induce visions and dreams which reveal to us our own role in the difficult areas of our lives. Mahogany Obsidian is also considered extremely protective. Wearing this gemstone is thought to improve self-acceptance by removing negative self-talk. It is thought to have special cleansing powers with respect to negativity.

Snowflake Obsidian: occurs when the inclusion of small, white clustered crystals called "cristobalite" in the black volcanic glass produce a blotchy or "snowflake" pattern. Native Americans considered Snowflake Obsidian a guardian to the Great Spirit and their culture. This gemstone was believed to be a powerful psychic talisman and often carried by Shamans. Snowflake Obsidian is thought to be especially protective for women and believed to help with the inner reflection needed to bring real change in difficult areas of one's life. Also said to shield the wearer from negativity and grief, purifying the soul. Snowflake Obsidian is thought by some to benefit the intestines and digestive system.


SEE OBSIDIAN BEADS

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Onyx: Onyx is a Chalcedony Quartz that is mined in Brazil, India, California and Uruguay. It has a fine texture and black color. However, some Onyx also displays white bands or ribbons against a black or brown background and this variety is known as "Sardonyx". The name derives from the Greek word "onux" which means "fingernail" or "claw".

Originally, almost all colors of Chalcedony from white to dark brown and black were called "Onyx". Today when we think of Onyx we often preface the word with "black" to distinguish it from other varieties of that come in white, reddish brown, brown and banded. Onyx registers 6.5 on the Mohís scale of hardness. Most of the Black Onyx that is commercially available today is color enhanced (heated and dyed) to increase its depth of color.

Onyx is one of the birth stones listed for the zodiac sign of Leo. It is also the mystical birthstone for the month of December and the stone representing the tenth wedding anniversary. Onyx is said to separate and help release negative emotions such as sorrow and grief. It is worn to defend against negativity and Black Onyx is said to have protective energies in the sense that black is the absence of light, and therefore, can be used to create invisibility. It is also believed to fortify self confidence and responsibility, sharpen your senses and encourage a healthy self esteem.


SEE ONYX BEADS

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Opalite: in its natural form is composed mostly of dolomite (opalized Fluorite) but often found with minerals such as Quartz and Chalcedony. Opalite is a beautiful, mesmerizing pinkish lavender that has a tendency to pick up other colors. Also called "Tiffany Stone", "Ice Cream Opal" and "Opal Fluorite".

!!! Much of the inexpensive Opalite available on the jewelry market  is actually a manmade quartz glass of gemstone quality that mimics the chemical compound found in natural earth formed stones. Also referred to as "Sea Opal", manmade Opalite is a translucent milky white, featuring a subtle color play of purple, blue, orange and yellow under the light.

Opalite is said to have calming properties that helps one to relax and sleep. It is also believed to help clarify underlying issues that interferes with your concentration and attention so that you can find resolution


SEE OPALITE BEADS

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Paua Shell: shell (also called ďAbaloneĒ or ďSea OpalĒ) comes from a large marine mollusk found in the shallow coastal waters around New Zealand.  Itís brilliant iridescence and intense variation of color, that seems to change when viewed from different angles, makes it the most popular and beautiful of all shells.

Peace Jade:  (see Jade)

Peach Aventurine:  (see Aventurine)

Pearl:

Peridot:  is the gem quality variety of forsteritic Olivine that ranges a 6.5 to 7 on the Mohís Scale of hardness. The name of the gemstone is believed to come from either the Arabic word "faridat" meaning "gem", or the French word "peritot" meaning "unclear." Peridot is one of the few gemstones that comes in only one color. The depth of green depends on how much iron is contained in the crystal structure, and varies from yellow-green to olive and brownish green. Peridot is also often referred to as "poor man's emerald". Olivine is a very abundant mineral, but gem quality Peridot is rather rare. Crystals have been collected from iron-nickel meteorites, while Olivine formations of Peridot can be found among lava beds. However, gem quality Peridot only occurs in a fraction of these settings. Peridot is mined in North Carolina, Arizona, Hawaii, Nevada and New Mexico in the US. It is also found in Australia, Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Burma, Norway, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. The highest quality Peridot specimens are from the eastern lava fields of Saudi Arabia.

Peridot is the official birthstone for the month of August as adopted by the American National Association of Jewelers in 1912. It is also the stone for the zodiac sign of Libra. Peridot is thought to bring the wearer good luck, peace, and success. Its powers are said to include health, protection, and sleep. It is also credited for attracting love, calming anger, soothing nerves and dispelling negative emotions.


SEE PERIDOT BEADS

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Picasso Stone: (also called "Picasso Jasper" or "Picasso Marble"), is a form of metamorphic limestone that forms deep within the earth and is created by several cycles of heat and pressure. The irregular and striking patterns of color and lines are unique and named after the artist Picasso, for its similarities to his brush strokes.

Picasso Stone is said to have strong metaphysical qualities of grounding and calming. Some claim it also promotes weight loss and assists in the development of creativity, as well as bestowing strength and self-discipline.


SEE PICASSO STONE BEADS

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Picasso Stone, Red: (see Picasso Stone)

Picture Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Pink Agate:  (see Agate)

Pink Lace Agate:  (see Agate)

Pipestone:  (also called "Catlinite") is a beautiful, deep rose-red color with occasional flecking named after the 19th century American artist, George Catlin. Pipestone is a soft red siltstone (or hardened clay) that occurs as outcroppings in southwestern Minnesota. Its reference to "Pipestone" comes from the Native Americanís historical use of the material for creating ceremonial objects and ornamentation. It is still considered a sacred stone by the indigenous people of the plains, and remains the stone of choice for their traditional prayer pipes. Pipestone is very soft with Moh's Scale hardness of 1-1/2 to 2.


SEE PIPESTONE BEADS

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Poppy Jasper:  (see Jasper)



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Quartz: from German word "Quarz", is the second most common mineral in the Earthís continental crust. It is made up of a lattice of silica (SiO2) tetrahedra and has a hardness of 7 on the Mohís scale. Quartz goes by an array of different names. The most important distinction between types of Quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification), often referred to as "Chalcedony".

Blue Quartz: is either lab-grown or color enhanced to produce its unique, unnatural color. Synthetic or "lab-grown" gemstones have the same chemical, physical, and optical characteristics as their naturally occurring counterparts.

Cherry Quartz: as it occurs naturally is rare and is more often referred to as "Strawberry Quartz."   Strawberry Quartz gets is color from sparkly hematite needles and is mined in Russia and Mexico. However, most of the inexpensive Cherry Quartz sold on the jewelry market today is either a color enhanced Quartz or a manmade gemstone with thin swirls and needles of pink. Cherry Quartz boasts the pink cherry color that sold very well in 2003 and 2004. The process of producing "lab-grown" or synthetic Cherry Quartz is laborious and only one plant in China is said to be producing this gem quality glass.

Crystal Quartz:  is the most common of all Quartz varieties. In its natural form, it is more often referred to as "Rock Quartz." This colorless, transparent gemstone has a simple beauty. While Crystal "Rock Quartz" is naturally occurring,  this gemstone can also be duplicated and is occasionally manmade or "lab-grown", which is chemically and visually identical to the mineral found in nature. Much like a Cubic Zirconia is to a Diamond. Crystal Quartz is said to be a stone of harmony & power, with the ability to bring the energy of the stars into the soul. It is believed to stimulate brain function, help with clarity of the mind, dispel negativity and facilitate healing.

Lemon Quartz: (also called "Lemon Citrine" or "Prasiolite") is a light yellow variety of macrocrystalline Quartz, different only to Amethyst and Citrine in color. It is more lemon in color than its relative Citrine, which is often more golden yellow in color. Natural Lemon Quartz is mined in Brazil and Africa, but more often this color is achieved by heating Amethyst (another color variation of Quartz) together with iron to finish the process nature started. Lemon Quartz is believed to help eliminate negative thoughts and lift depression.

Rose Quartz: This blushing gemstone is one of the most desirable varieties of Quartz. The unique pink-to-rose-red color is caused by iron and titanium impurities in the natural stone. However,  most of the Rose Quartz distributed on the jewelry market today has been dyed to maintain a uniform color. Rose Quartz is said to be symbolic of love and beauty. It is credited for restoring youthful qualities, especially as it relates to the skin, and believed to help foster self esteem.

Tourmalated Quartz: is a formation of Quartz which contains "needle like" Tourmaline crystals that are common and attractive. Other interesting inclusions also found are rutile, gold, silver, pyrite and goethite. It is also referred to as "Sagenite", "Venus Hair Stone", "Cupidís Darts" and "Fleches d'amour".

Smoky Quartz: (also called "Smokey Citrine" or "Smokey Topaz") is a transparent to translucent brownish-black or "smoky" grey Quartz stone.  Most of the inexpensive Smoky Quartz sold on the jewelry market is actually a natural Rock Crystal Quartz that has been heat-treated to produce this unique color, finishing what nature started. This treatment has become common because this naturally formed variation is rare and difficult to find. Smokey Quartz is said to alleviate stress and transform fear, anger & other negative emotions into positive energies. It is believed to promote clarity of thought, improved intuition, heightened instincts, as well as stimulate higher awareness in meditative states.

Snow Quartz: (also called "Milky Quartz", "Quartzite" or "White Jade") is the second most common variety of Quartz. This fresh, icy-white gemstone gets its appearance from inclusions of tiny gas bubbles and/or water. Snow Quartz is said to bring good fortune, and is a calming and soothing gemstone. Many believe it to be helpful for meditation and looking within. It is also considered beneficial for the immune system.

Volcano Quartz: (also called "Volcano Cherry Quartz") is a manmade or "lab-grown" Quartz that has the same chemical, physical, and optical characteristics as natural quartz. Volcano Quartz is best recognized for its striking inclusions and striations of varied colors incased within clear crystal, giving it a three-dimensional effect.


SEE QUARTZ BEADS

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Rainbow Fluorite:  (see Fluorite)

Rainbow Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Reconstituted: The process of reconstituting gemstone consists of pulverizing smaller pieces of stone and/or cast-offs from the grinding process, often into powder form, that are then stabilized and hardened with resins to achieve a natural stone appearance. It has also become the general term now used by the jewelry industry to describe any simulated or manmade gemstone.  Often referred to as "block" gemstone.

Red Agate:  (see Agate)

Red Aventurine:  (see Aventurine)

Red Goldstone:  (see Goldstone)

Red Howlite:  (see Howlite)

Red Jade:  (see Jade)

Red Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Red River Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Riband Jasper: (see Jasper)

Ribbon Jasper: (see Jasper)

Red Tigereye:  (see Tigereye)

Rhodochrosite:  is a manganese carbonate whose name derives from the Greek word "rhodon", meaning "rose," with a Mohís Scale hardness of 3.5 to 4. It is a very attractive mineral with an absolutely one-of-a-kind, beautiful color consisting of variations of light pink to dark rose, sometimes streaked with swirling patterns of cream and pale grey calcite. Also called "Inca Rose Stone", "Raspberry Spar" or "Maganese Spar", it is similar in color to Rhodonite, except that it is softer and lacks the black veining associated with its close relative. Rhodochrosite is found in the US, Argentine, Mexico, Namibia, South Africa, Spain and Romania.

Rhodochrosite is said to help develop inner freedom by neutralizing the destructive behavior patterns that restrict personal growth and undermine physical health. It is also said to bring love to the wearer, help release past psychological issues and improve eyesight.


SEE RHODOCHROSITE BEADS

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Rhodonite:  is a manganese inocilicate that derives its name from the Greek word "rhodon", meaning "rose," with a Mohís Scale hardness of 5.5 to 6.5. While similar to Rhodochrosite, Rhodonite is typically a deep pink to mauve color, sometimes with inclusions of black manganese oxide veins running through it, giving it a distinct appearance. Rhodonite can be found in Russia, Australia, Sweden, Brazil, and even Massachusetts and New Jersey in the United States.

Rhodonite is believed to be a calming stone that decreases anxiety and stabilizes your emotions, helping one to pay more attention to detail. It soothes and brings order to feelings that are scattered, imbalanced, or ungrounded. Some believe that Rhodonite can increase language skills and raise self-esteem. The pink color of Rhodonite is said to enhance passionate love, while the black inclusions keep the wearer grounded. Physically, some believe that Rhodonite helps to restore physical energy after a trauma, improves hearing, gives relief to emphysema, eases joint pain and inflammation, decreases sensitivity to light, and even helps with strep throat.


SEE RHODONITE BEADS

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Rhyolite:  (also known as "Cuprite") is very closely related to granite. The difference is Rhyolite has much finer crystals. It is predominately composed of Quartz, Feldspar, Mica, and Hornblende. The name Rhyolite is derived from the Greek word "rhyx" which translates to "streams of lava". Although some use the terms Ryolite and Rhyolite interchangeably, the names used to define their colors varies greatly. The stone referred to as "Rhyolite" by geologists is generally described as being grey, brown, or reddish in color with streaks or patches.

Rhyolite is regarded as a stone of resolution and perseverance. It is said to enhance all types of communication (written, oral and body language) as well as helping to listen clearly - without distorting the message that one is hearing. It is also thought to be a wonderful stone for meditation. Rhyolite is said to balance the Yin/Yang (feminine and masculine) energies. It is believed to be beneficial to those who are reclusive and solitary, fostering the trust necessary to allow others into their lives. It is also considered a stone of protection. Physically,  Rhyolite is thought to be beneficial for cleansing the liver, cell regeneration and overall healing.


SEE RHYOLITE BEADS

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Rose Quartz:  (see Quartz)

Russian Amazonite: (see Amazonite)

Rutilated Quartz:  (see Quartz)

Ryolite:  (also known as "Rainforest Jasper") is a rock composed mainly of Copper and Quartz. Although some use the terms Ryolite and Rhyolite interchangeably, the names used to define their colors varies greatly. Ryolite is an opaque mossy green gemstone sometimes flecked with tans, brown and occasional clear spots. Its a relatively soft stone registering a 3.5 to 4.0 on the Mohs Scale of hardness. The name Ryolite was derived from the Greek word "rhyx" which translates to "streams of lava". Although gem quality Ryolite is often from Australia, it is also very common in the southwestern and western areas of the United States. Other occurrences of this gemstone can be found throughout the world.

It is believed that Ryolite encourages change and creativity. It is said to help one resolve feelings of continuous victimization while fostering self-esteem and the capacity to love. Ryolite is credited for enhancing communication and listening skills, helping one to comprehend without distorting what is being said. Some believe it helpful to those who are solitary and reclusive, promoting trust in allowing others to enter their lives and fostering healthy relationships.


SEE RYOLITE BEADS

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Sard: is a reddish-brown Chalcedony Quartz (SiO2) that derives its name from Sardis, an ancient town in Lydia (now Turkey), where it was first discovered. It is also thought to come from the Persian word "sered", meaning "yellowish-red". Historically, Sard was valued as a gemstone by the Egyptians, early Greeks and Hebrews. Although closely resembling Carnelian, Sard is a much harder and duller stone. Like Carnelian, Sard is a silica mineral that gets it color from iron oxide, the content of which determines its varying shades of yellow, gold, orange, red and even brown.

Sardonyx: refers to a form of translucent Agate (Chalcedony Quartz) which is combined with bands of opaque Sard (brownish red) or opaque Onyx (white or black). Sardonyx is distinguishable in that its banding is straight and parallel, rather than curved or wavy as normally associated with most Agate varieties.

Roman soldiers wore Sardonyx talismans engraved with heroes such as Hercules or the god of war, Mars. They believed that the stone would make the wearer as brave and daring as the figure carved from it. During the Renaissance, Sardonyx was believed to bring eloquence upon the wearer and was regarded with great value by public speakers and orators. This gemstone is believed by many to eliminate negative thinking as well as sharpen the wits of the wearer.


SEE SARDONYX BEADS

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Serpentine:  is a major rock forming mineral and is the general name applied to a large group of 20 various mineral combinations composed primarily of these minerals called "serpentinite". The name derives from the Latin word "serpeninus", meaning "serpent rock" which describes the often mottled and scaly appearance. Most Serpentines are opaque to translucent with a Mohís Scale hardness of 2.5 to 4. All are microcrystallines, with a vitreous, greasy or silky luster. Serpentine colors can range from white to grey, yellow to green, brown to black, and are often splotchy or veined. Many Serpentinite rocks have metamorphosed with other minerals, such as calcite and dolomite, and its occurrence is worldwide.


SEE SERPENTINE BEADS

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Sesame Jasper:  (See Jasper)

Silver Leaf Jasper:  (See Jasper)

Smokey Quartz:  (See Quartz)

Snowflake Obsidian:  (See Obsidian)

Snow Jade:  (See Jade)

Snow Quartz:  (See Quartz)

Soapstone: (also known as "Steatite" or "Soaprock") are metamorphic rocks, largely composed of Serpentine, talc, and carbonates (magnesite, dolomite, or calcite). Soapstone is about as hard as limestone, but much more dense, with a Mohís Scale hardness of 1. Soapstone lends itself well to carving and derives its name from its often soft, soapy feel to the touch.


SEE SOAPSTONE BEADS

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Sodalite: is a rich royal blue member of the Feldspar family, named after its sodium content. Better known for its blue color, Sodalite may also be grey, yellow, green, or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. Although very similar to Lazurite and Lapis, Sodalite is never quite comparable, being a royal blue rather than ultramarine. Sodalite also rarely contains pyrite, a common inclusion in Lapis. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streaking and mottling of calcite. Sodalite registers a hardness of 5.5 to 6.0 on the Mohís Scale.

Sodalite is said to stimulate courage, alleviate fears and calm anguish. It is also thought to promote understanding and lend balance for spiritual growth.


SEE SODALITE BEADS

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Stabilized Turquoise: Turquoise in its raw state is very soft and porous. "Stabilized" is the term used to describe a Turquoise in itís natural form which has been permeated with a protective resin to harden and protect the stone from pollutants (including oils from the skin) which in time can change the original color or even damage the stone. Almost all the Turquoise sold for use as jewelry has been treated in this fashion in order to make it more wearer-friendly


SEE TURQUOISE BEADS

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Succor Creek Jasper: (see Jasper)

Sugilite: is a rare polycrystalline rock consisting largely of manganoan sugilite. It was named after the Japanese geologist, Ken-ichi Sugi, who discovered the first specimens in 1944. It was only introduced to the American jewelry market as recently as 1984. Sugilite is typically a deep lavender, less commonly reddish violet (magenta) or bluish purple. Its purple color is due to the presence of manganese and often exhibits banding, black matrixing, mottling or pleasing patterns of reddish brown or yellow. Because of the presence of more than one of these hues; some pieces appear bluish purple in daylight and reddish purple under incandescent light. Sugilite is typically opaque while some of the more rare and expensive stones are beautifully translucent with little to no matrixing or blotching. Sugilite has a waxy luster and ranges between 6 to 7.5 on the Mohís Scale of hardness. While first discovered in Japan, deposits have since been located in Canada and South Africa.

It is said that Sugilite strengthens the heart, promotes physical healing and reduces stress. It is thought to balance the mind, body and spirit encouraging a sense of peace, well being and spiritual love. It is also believed that Sugilite both protects against and helps to dissipate anger and other negative energies.


SEE SUGILITE BEADS

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Tigereye: (also spelled tigerís-eye or tiger eye) is a semiprecious Quartz gem displaying chatoyancy (a vertical luminescent band). Tigereye typically has alternating yellow or brown bands that roll across the surface and catch the light, resembling the eye of a tiger.. With a Mohís Scale hardness of 7, its tawny brown color is derived from iron oxides. However, when heated the stoneís color changes from brown to red, thus creating the alternative "Red Tigereye" also sold on the jewelry market today. The most important mine for Tigereye is in South Africa, but it is also mined in Western Australia, USA, Canada, India, Namibia, and Burma.

Roman soldiers wore Tigereye for protection in battle because it was thought to be "all seeing" due to its appearance. Physically, it is also said to relieve high blood pressure as well as psoriasis, bronchial asthma, kidney, rheumatic and heart diseases. Tigereye is believed to be useful in focusing the mind and is credited for giving protection during travel. It is thought to strengthen oneís convictions and confidence, thereby being very beneficial for the weak and sick.


SEE TIGEREYE BEADS

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Tiger Iron:  (sometimes called "Mugglestone") is an altered sedimentary rock composed chiefly of Tigereye sandwiched between layers of red Jasper and black Hematite. The contrasting horizontal bands makes it a very attractive stone which is often mistaken for Tigereye because of its similarities. It measures a 7 on the Mohís scale of hardness. While predominately mined in Australia, it has also been unearthed in England, Mexico, Brazil, and the Lake Superior Region of the United States.

Tiger Iron is thought to be a stone of clarity, particularly in regard to knowledge, in the belief that it helps one to see the truth below the surface. Tiger Iron is also credited for promoting creativity and inspiring all types of artistic abilities. It is used to bring strength, vitality, confidence, willpower, and balance. It is said to be an excellent stone for people wishing to bring more motivation into their lives. According to traditional folklore and contemporary spiritual healers, Tiger Iron is credited for balancing white and red blood cells, increasing natural steroid production, improving muscular structure, and promoting the healthy function of reproductive organs, liver, and nervous system.


SEE TIGER IRON BEADS

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Tiger Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Tree Agate:  (see Agate)

Turquoise is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized for thousands of years because of its unique color. Historically, this gemstone has been known by many names, but the term "Turquoise" is thought to be a derivative of either the 16th century French word "turquois", meaning "Turkish" or "pierre turquin" meaning "dark blue stone". Turquoise is a relatively soft stone with a Mohís scale hardness just under 6. It is typically opaque with a waxy luster, but may be semi translucent in thin sections. Its color can range from white to powder blue and sky blue as well as various shades of green depending on its mineral properties --- blue being attributed to the copper content while green is the result of either iron or dehydration. Turquoise was among the first gemstones to be mined, and while many historic sites have since been depleted, few are still operational to this day. However, these are often small-scale, seasonal operations, due to the limited scope and remoteness of the deposits. Many of the remaining sites are still worked by hand with little or no machinery, while other Turquoise deposits are subsequently recovered as a byproduct of larger-scale copper mining operations, especially in the United States. China has been a minor source of Turquoise for 3,000 years, as well as Mexico, Africa, Australia, Iran, Afghanistan, and other middle eastern countries.

The indigenous tribes of Colorado, Arizona, Nevada and New Mexico have long fashioned Turquoise into ornamental jewelry, inlays and carvings. The Navaho believe Turquoise is a piece of the sky which has fallen to earth. The Apache associate it with the spirits of the sea and sky and believed it to help warriors and hunters aim accurately. The Zuni believe that Turquoise protects them from evil spirits, while the Aztecs reserved Turquoise for the gods and believed it was not to be worn by mere mortals.

Among contemporary spiritualists, Turquoise is thought to attract prosperity and success, influence creativity, and enhance communication skills. The stone has long been prized as a powerful talisman with healing properties. It is said that Turquoise can help balance the throat chakra, bolster the immune system and give relief to sore throats, lung infections and allergies. Turquoise is also the modern birthstone representing the month of December.

African Turquoise: while beautiful in its own right, is not true mineral Turquoise. Rather its the industry name given to a natural bluish-green Jasper found in Africa that has a very similar brown to black matrix structure.

Block Turquoise: is the general term used to describe either a reconstituted or man-made Turquoise reproduction which may or may not contain any natural minerals or Turquoise partials. The reference to "block" more often describes the process whereby a mixture of plastic resins and dyes are combined to produce a loaf sized block suitable for carving small heshi beads and intricate pieces for inlay work.

Chalk Turquoise: is a term used to describe a lower grade Turquoise that has been dyed and stabilized with hardeners to produce a material that's durable enough to use in jewelry with a pleasing turquoise color. It has the same phosphate composition as Turquoise, only with lower amounts of copper, aluminum and/or iron. It's the metal content that results in the green to blue turquoise color. More recently, the name "Chalk Turquoise" is being applied to Reconstituted Turquoise or dyed Magnesite (MgCO3). Chalk Turquoise has become a popular substitute for high-grade Turquoise that is becoming increasingly more expensive and rare. It can now be found in a variety of new and contemporary colors such as lime green, bright yellow, pink and lavender..

Chinese Turquoise: China has been a source of Turquoise for over 3,000 years. Compact nodules of this mineral are found among the fractured and solidified limestone beds of Yunxian and Zhushan, in the Hubei province of mainland China. Additional sources were once reported by Marco Polo to be found in present-day Sichuan. Much of the Turquoise from China is wax impregnated. The paraffin treatment deepens and stabilizes the color but only affects the surface.

Imperial Turquoise: is not a true Turquoise, rather the industry term given to a form of Jasper (Chocolate Jasper) which has been color enhanced and stabilized to produce a unique and richly colored stone truly worthy of its name.

Mexican Turquoise: is very similar in color to the famed Sleeping Beauty Turquoise of US, Arizona. It can be found in various shades of blue and green with dark, sometimes black matrix. Turquoise deposits in Mexico are very unique in that the mineral forms as nuggets in clay material, rather than in rock veins. North-central Mexico has been exporting Turquoise since the mid-1980s, but its significance, use and trade among its indigenous people has been dated back as far as 300 A.D. Among the Aztecs, Turquoise was believed to be a sacred stone, reserved only for the gods and never to be worn by mere mortals.

Reconstituted Turquoise: is the term used to describe the process by which pulverized turquoise scrap from stone cuttings are mixed with dyes and resin binders to produce recycled material large enough to use in other applications. Compressed Nugget is a similar product made from larger pieces. However, it should be noted that most of the Turquoise  marketed as "reconstituted" is actually a man-made simulated "block" and may or may not contain any natural turquoise byproduct.

Stabilized Turquoise: Natural Turquoise in its raw state is very soft and porous. "Stabilized" is the term used to describe a Turquoise in itís natural form which has been permeated with a protective resin to harden and protect the stone from pollutants (including oils from the skin) which in time can change the original color or even damage the stone. Almost all the Turquoise sold for use as jewelry has been treated in this fashion in order to make it more wearer-friendly.

Wild Horse Turquoise: is not a considered a genuine mineral Turquoise since it does not contain any copper or iron which produces the various shades of blue to green often associated with Turquoise.  Rather its the industry name given to a natural mineral formation consisting of white to tan Magnesite (MgCO3) that has combined with Hematite to produce a unique light to dark matrix.

Yellow Turquoise: is the mysterious newcomer on the scene. Although it does exist in natural form, it is very rare and therefore expensive and hard to find. With itís increased popularity, much affordable "Yellow Turquoise" has suddenly flooded the market to meet public demand, leaving everyone to question and speculate about what it actually is. The general consensus (so far) is that itís quickly become the general term used by manufacturers to describe a color-treated Chinese Turquoise, Serpentine, Limestone, Jasper or Dolomite Marble.

 


SEE TURQUOISE BEADS

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Turquoise Magnesite:  (see Magnesite)

Turquoise Howlite:  (see Howlite)



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Unakite:  was first discovered in the United States in the Unakas mountains of North Carolina, where it gets its name. Unakite is an altered granite composed of pink Feldspar, green Epidot, and generally clear Quartz. It is opaque in appearance with mottled shades of green and pink. Unakite measures a 6 to 7 on the Mohís Scale of hardness.

Unakite is said to lift your spirits when you are feeling down and thought to help you to see the beauty in life. It is also used to uncover deception.


SEE UNAKITE BEADS

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Variscite:  is a relatively rare phosphate mineral that appears similar to Chrysocolla and TurquoiseVariscite derived its name from Variscia, the historical name of Vogtland in Germany where it was first described in 1837. At times it had also been referred to as Utahlite, named for the two major mines in Utah where deposits have since been nearly exhausted. The remaining U.S. Clay Canyon Variscite fetches top dollar and is prized by collectors for its range of colors. It is also mined in U.S. Nevada as well as Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

Variscite is said to help with intuition and memory, particularly as it relates to past lives. It is also claimed to balance the central nervous system and ease depression, fear, worry, anxiety and impatience. It is attributed to helping one obtain virtue, self-reliance, moral courage and success.


SEE VARISCITE BEADS

 

Volcano Quartz:  (see Quartz)



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White Agate: (see Agate)

White Howlite:  (see Howlite)

Whitestone:

Wild Horse Turquoise: (see Magnesite)



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Yellow Agate:  (see Agate)

Yellow Jade:  (see Jade)

Yellow Turquoise:  is the mysterious newcomer on the scene. Although it does exist in natural form, it is very rare and therefore expensive and hard to find. With itís increased popularity, much affordable "Yellow Turquoise" has suddenly flooded the market to meet public demand, leaving everyone to question and speculate about what it actually is. The general consensus (so far) is that itís quickly become the general term used by manufacturers to describe a color-treated Chinese Turquoise, Serpentine, Jasper, Limestone, or Dolomite Marble.

 



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Zebra Jasper:  (see Jasper)

Zebra Stone:  (see Jasper)